Tag Archives: greek

INTERESTING FACTS FIGURES AND QUOTES–38

Copyright@shravancharitymission

The world moves with GPS. But how does GPS work? Let’s find out. GPS—global positioning system—is a space-age version of triangulation. Originally developed for military use, GPS has three components: satellites orbiting earth, master control stations around the world, and receivers installed in locations ranging from naval destroyers to private golf carts.             In the U.S. GPS system, two dozen Navstar satellites     orbit the planet every 12 hours, following six different orbits. Three additional satellites orbit as backup. The satellites contain atomic clocks that send precise times with each signal. The control stations monitor the satellites, using remote controlled on-board thrusters to manage their positions.     When a GPS user on land or sea calls for location information, signals pass from orbiting satellites to user’s receiver. The length of time taken by the transmissions—usually a fraction of a second—helps determine distance to a point on an imaginary sphere, and the user’s latitude and longitude can be calculated by using the mathematics and triangulation. Three satellites would suffice, but more provide redundancy and compensate for inaccuracies. GPS signals are broadcast on two different frequencies, one for military use and one for civilian use. Civilian augmentation can provide precise location to within 0.4 of an inch.

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WHY ARE THERE 360 DEGREES IN A CIRCLE?

    A degree is a fraction of a circle, and there are 360 degrees in each of the imaginary circles that describe the surface of the Earth. The number 360, in this context, usually is, attributed to the Babylonians, (present day Iraq) who devised a base—60 number system. (Our modern system is 10). They probably were the first to divide a circle into 360 degrees (6 x 60). Some historians think that the base—60 system derives from the approximate length in days of a calendar year, but others claim that the Babylonians chose 60 because it is divisible by so many numbers. Hipparchus, the Greek astronomer, who invented the formal system of latitude and longitude, divided each Earth circle into 360 degrees, each degree, having 60 minutes. and each minute, having 60 seconds.

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India Inc. is a common term used by the Indian media to refer to the formal sector (comprising government and corporate) sector of the nation. It employed 7 percent of the workforce in 2000 and contributed 60 per cent of the nominal GDP of the nation.

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Famous English novelist George Orwell who wrote the famous novel ‘Animal Farm’ was born in Motihari, Bihar.

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J&K became part of India 10 weeks after Independence when Maharaja Hari Singh, alarmed by the rapid advance of armed Pakistani tribesman, hurriedly signed the instrument of accession. In legal—if not moral—terms, the decision was his alone.

By Kamlesh Tripathi

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https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

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Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

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Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

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BOOK CORNER:GODS AND ROBOTS: Myths, Machines, and Ancient Dreams of Technology … by Adrienne Mayor

Copyright@shravancharitymission

 

Khidki (Window)

–Read India Initiative—

This is only an attempt to create interest in reading. We may not get the time to read all the books in our lifetime. But such reviews, talk and synopsis will at least convey what the book is all about.

Gods and Robots: Myths, Machines and Ancient Dreams of Technology’

Adriyana Mayor in 2018.

Published by Princeton University Press, New Jersey

    Albert Einstein had once said. “Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution.” So, let ‘imagination’ be the tagline of this write-up. As books are indeed an exercise of the author’s imagination. For who could first imagine the concepts of robots, automation, human enhancements, and Artificial Intelligence? Historians tend to trace the idea of automation back to the medieval craftsmen who developed self- moving machines.

    Let me now take you to a research scholar at Stanford University. Her name is Adrienne Mayor. She is a historian of ancient science and warfare, and a classical forklorist who investigates natural knowledge contained in pre-scientific myths and oral traditions. She has recently come out with a book titled, ‘Gods and Robots: Myths, Machines and Ancient Dreams of Technology.’ It’s a long title.

    Adrienne feels Hindu epics are full of AI (Artificial Intelligence) and robots, and legend has it, that they guarded Buddha’s relics.

    In this book the lady author explores how ancient culture imagined futuristic technologies and left behind those imaginations in epics and scriptures. She tells how Ashoka battled robots, and other tech tales from the past.    Faith can move mountains. There is a belief in India among the Hindus that ancient Indians had invented everything from spacecraft to missiles to the internet. Lady author tries to link this theory with her research work. She feels her research got her into the first inklings of the scientific impulse and that took her into the world of mythology, where ancient people first envisioned making artificial life, automation (or robots), self-moving devices, and other marvelous things long before the present day technology made them possible. She states these stories about robots and other machines in ancient oral traditions were first written down during the time of Homer, about some 2,700 years ago. But the Greeks were not the only people to imagine automation and machines in antiquity. Similar stories exist in the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and other epics. In Hindu myths, automations are made by the engineer God Vishwakarma and the sorceress or more appropriately the mystique of Maya. In Greek myths they are made by the God of technology. His name is Hephaestus—the Greek God of fire and metal working and the brilliant artisan Daedalus, a craftsman and artist again from Greek mythology. I consider such myths to be the world’s first science fiction stories. No single civilisation had a monopoly on such ancient dreams of advanced technology. Whether one looks at Greek, Egyptian, Hindu, Islamic, Chinese, Etruscan—the modern name given to the powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy or any other ancient cultural myths about artificial life. They all contemplate what wonders might have been achieved if only one could possess the divine creativity and abilities of the Gods. But it’s not possible to draw a direct line of development from mythology over the millennia to the modern scientific knowledge.

    Further the lady author goes on to say that the Indian and Hellenistic cultures borrowed and influenced each other, beginning in about the fifth century BC, The syncretism only intensified, after Alexander of Macedon and King Porus began relations in the fourth century BC. Jain texts mention that the engineers of Ajatasatru, the  king of Haryanka dynasty of Magadha, invented armoured war chariots with spinning blades, which may have inspired later the Persian scythed chariots. Ajatasatru had powerful machines to hurl massive boulders,  even before Philip—II of Macedon obtained torsion catapults—those huge launchers. India was known for perpetually burning oil lamps, suggesting knowledge of naphtha, that was unknown to the Greeks and the Romans until much later. The travelling Greek sage Apollodorus of Tyana observed automated servants and self-propelled carts in the court of a ruler of India, and India was centuries ahead of Europe in the technologies of distillation and hydraulics. There was probably more give and take than we know about.

    Myths featuring flying chariots and synthetic swans, animated servants, giant robots, machines, and the like appear in the Mahabharata, Ramayana, Kathasaritasagara, Harivamsa, and other works. Self-navigating ships appear in Egyptian texts and Homer’s odyssey; android and animal automations are described in Homer’s Iliad and in Chinese chronicles. And further examples are myriad.

    The book goes on to share the story of android warriors guarding Buddha’s relics. The most detailed account is in the Lokapanatti, a complicated compilation of tales from Burma. After Buddha’s death, the story recounts that King Ajatasatru preserved his bodily remains in a hidden chamber under a stupa. The precious relics were guarded by ‘bhuta vahana yantra’ (spirit transporting machine). These were robotic warriors with whirling swords—reminiscent of the king’s novel war machines with spinning blades. Greek myths tell of automation guardians in human and animal form defending palaces and treasures, but the historical and technological details of this legend make it unique. The story says the robots were constructed from plans and were secretly transported to Patliputra from Romavisaya, the Greek-influenced west, by a yantrakara, that is a robot maker who was originally from Patliputra. The automation soldiers guarded Buddha’s relics until the great Indian emperor Ashoka heard about the secret chamber. Ashoka battled the robots and after he defeated them he learned how to control them. They obeyed him. Historically, we know that Ashoka did unearth and distribute long hidden relics of Buddha across the land.

    By third century BC, craftspeople and engineers in the Greek world, Alexandria, Arabia, India and China began making self-moving devices, flying bird models, animated machines, and automations like those described in myths. Some were miniature and some monumental, some had simple mechanisms but some were quite complex. These inventions were powered by springs, levers, pulleys, water, air, heat, and so on.

    Overall it’s an extremely interesting book of around three hundred pages. The book really impacts you and leaves you enlightened. Where, you might just be inclined to even change your mindset. But yes don’t rush through the book as it is a little complex in terms of old historical words and even geographies and names. You might even have to refer the glossary or even the dictionary a little too often. I would give the book eight out of ten.

Synopsis by Kamlesh Tripathi

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https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

 

 

 

BEAUTIFUL LINES & INTERESTING THOUGHTS

Copyright@shravancharitymission

Kamlesh Tripathi

 

 

  • Mind without heart, intelligence without conduct, cleverness without goodness are tools, but only for mischief.
  • Behave the way you can always behave—Annonymous.
  • Who is rich? He that is content. Who is that? Nobody—Benjamin Franklin
  • I would not wish any companion in the world but you—Shakespeare.
  • The Rig Veda tells us: “Let noble thoughts come to us from everywhere.”
  • “Nobody can tell what I suffer! But it is always so. Those who do not complain are never pitied.”
    ― Jane AustenPride and Prejudice
  • “The wound is the place where the Light enters you.”
    ― Jalaluddin Rumi
  • “One thing you can’t hide – is when you’re crippled inside.”
    ― John Lennon
  • Justice as Lord Atkin said is “no cloistered virtue”
  • Sometimes words that fail to make their effect at the time are remembered later—Agatha Christie
  • Give your clients the earliest delivery consistent with quality—whatever the inconvenience to us—Arthur Nielson
  • Opportunities present themselves every day. You just have to be alert and ready to act.—MARK OSTROFSKY, US ENTREPRENEUR
  • Sometimes it’s worse to win a fight than to lose—Billie Holiday
  • The best of us must sometimes eat our words—JK Rowling
  • The only thing that will redeem mankind is cooperation—BERTRAND RUSSELL
  • What is a cynic? A man who knows the price of everything and value of nothing—Oscar Wilde
  • Slow down and steady up—annonymous
  • All work and no play/makes Jack a dull boy. To which the cautionary response goes ‘All play and no work/ Makes Jack a mere toy.’ TOI Editorial
  • Don’t talk about yourself; it will be done when you leave—Wilson Mazner, US playwright
  • Never hate your enemies. It affects your judgement- Mario Puzo- Godfather
  • We’ve seen over time that countries that have the best economic growth are those that have good governance- Ramez Naam US writer
  • A conversation is a dialogue, not a monologue, That’s why there are so few good conversations- Truman
  • History does not repeat itself exactly but, as Mark Twain put it, it often rhymes.
  • If you have built castles in the air … now put the foundations under them—Henry David Thoureau
  • Margaret Thatcher’s warning that those standing in the middle of the road get run over.
  • The way to crush the bourgeoisie is to grind them between the millstones of taxation and inflation—Vladmir Lenin.
  • Carlyle- the history of the world is but biography of great men.’ Some so called great men have their hands deep in blood.
  • Boris Pasternak author of Dr Zhivago called silence the best sound on earth’
  • The greatest obstacle to excellence is you! A caddy once told a champion golfer, “There’s a perfect shot waiting out there. All you have to do is to get yourself out of the way.”
  • In short, I will part with anything for you but you- Mary Wortley Montagu, Writer.
  • There are good times and there are bad times, but one must never forget the hard times—Annonymous.
  • When a father gives to his son, both laugh; when a son gives to his father, both cry—William Shakespeare.
  • Kritam Lokham Purushoabhijayte- Man himself builds his own world.
  • The boxer Muhammad Ali refused to wear his seat-belt on a plane. “Superman doesn’t need a belt,” he insisted. Tying his belt for him, the stewardess replied, “Superman doesn’t need a plane either.”
  • Exhibitionists: at a wedding they want to be the bride. At a funeral the corpse. Julius Caesar who was an incorrigible egotist, was kidnapped when he was a child. He was held for a ransom of 11,000 gold pieces. Horrified exhorted his captors to raise the sum to 250,000 gold pieces so as to preserve his prestige.
  • You only find out who is swimming naked when the tide goes out—Warren Buffet
  • The whole of western science has developed from Greek philosophy. It stands on the foundations of Greek Philosophy, and one of Greek philosophy’s basic beliefs is that time travels in a straight line.
  • The bread that falls off your plate nearly always lands on the buttered side.
  • Evil manners live in brass, but our virtues we write in water.
  • There is a Mexican saying that we die three deaths: the first time we die is when our bodies die. The second is when our bodies are lowered into the earth, out of sight. The third time we die is when our loved ones forget us.
  • Being different and thinking different makes a person unforgettable. History does not remember the forgettable.- Suzy Kassem, US writer.

 

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