Category Archives: vignette

BOOK TALK: A SCANDAL IN BOHEMIA–by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Copyright@shravancharitymission

Khidki (Window)

–Read India Initiative—

This is only an attempt to create interest in reading. We may not get the time to read all the books in our lifetime. But such reviews, talk and synopsis will at least convey what the book is all about

A SCANDAL IN BOHEMIA

By Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

    This is the first short story. And the third overall work, featuring Arthur Conan Doyle’s fictional detective ‘Sherlock Holmes.’ It happens to be the first of the 56 Holmes short stories written by Doyle and the first of 38 Sherlock Holmes works illustrated by Sidney Paget (illustrator an artist who specialised on Conan Doyle’s work). The story is notable for introducing the character of Irene Adler, often referred as a romantic interest for Holmes in later derivative works. Conan Doyle ranked “A Scandal in Bohemia” fifth in the list of his twelve favourite Holmes stories.

    “A Scandal in Bohemia” was first published on 25 June 1891 in the July issue of The Strand Magazine, and was the first of the stories collected in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes in 1892.

PLOT

    Dr Watson recounts an adventure that started on 20th March 1888. When, the newly married Watson is paying Holmes a visit. This is when a masked visitor arrives. He introduces himself as Count Kramm, an agent for a wealthy client. Holmes quickly deduces that the visitor is in fact Wilhelm Gottsreich Sigismond von Ormstein, Grand Duke of Cassel-Felstein and the hereditary King of Bohemia. Realising Holmes has seen through his guise. The King admits this and tears off his mask.

    It transpires that the King is to get engaged to one Clotilde Lothman von Saxe-Meiningen, a young Scandinavian princess. However, five years before the current scenario, he had enjoyed a liaison with a “well-known adventuress,” an American opera singer Irene Adler, whilst, she was prima donna of the Imperial Opera of Warsaw. She had since retired, and now lived in London. Fearful … that should the strictly principled family of his fiancée learn of this impropriety, the marriage would be called off. So, he had sought to regain the letters and the photograph of Adler and himself together. Which, he had sent to her during their relationship as a token. The King’s agents had tried to recover the photograph through, forceful means, burglary, stealing her luggage, and even waylaying her. Also, an offer was made to pay her for the photograph and the letters. But she had refused. With Adler threatening to send them to his future in-laws, which the King presumed is intended to prevent him from marrying any other woman. So, he made the incognito visit to Holmes to request for his help in locating and obtaining the photograph.

    The photograph is described to Holmes as a cabinet (5½ by 4 inches) and therefore too bulky for a lady to carry upon her person. As regards expenses, the King said Holmes had a carte blanche and gave him £1,000 (£102,200 today), exclaiming. “I would give one of the provinces of my kingdom to have that photograph!” Holmes asks Dr. Watson to join him at 221B Baker Street at 3 o’clock the following afternoon.

    Next morning, Holmes goes to Adler’s house, disguised as a drunken out-of-work groom. He discovers from the local stable workers that Adler has a gentleman friend, the barrister Godfrey Norton of the Inner Temple, who calls on her at least once a day. On this particular day too, Norton comes to visit Adler, and soon afterwards, takes a cab to the Church of St. Monica in Edgware Road. Minutes later, the lady herself gets into her landau, bound for the same place. Holmes follows them in a cab and enters the church, where he is unexpectedly asked to be a witness to Norton and Adler’s wedding. Curiously, they go their separate ways after the ceremony.

    Meanwhile, Watson is waiting for Sherlock to arrive, and when Sherlock Holmes, finally does deliver himself back at Baker Street, he starts laughing. Watson is confused and asks what is so funny? Sherlock then recounts his tale and comments. He thought the situation and position he was in at the wedding was amusing. He also asks whether or not Watson is willing to participate in a scheme to figure out where the picture is hidden in Adler’s house. Watson agrees, and Holmes changes into another disguise as a clergyman. The duo, depart Baker Street for Adler’s house.

    When Holmes and Watson arrive, a group of jobless men meander throughout the street. When Adler’s coach pulls up, Sherlock Holmes enacts his plan. A fight breaks out between the men on the street over who gets to help Adler. Holmes rushes into the fight to protect Adler, and is seemingly struck and injured. Adler takes him into her sitting room, where Holmes motions for her to have the window opened. As Holmes lifts his hand, Watson recognizes a pre-arranged signal and tosses in a plumber’s smoke rocket. While smoke billows out of the building, Watson shouts “FIRE!” and the cry is echoed up and down the street.

    Holmes slips out of Adler’s house and tells Watson what he saw. As Holmes expected, Adler rushes to get her most precious possession at the cry of “fire”—the photograph of herself and the King. Holmes was able to see that the picture was kept in a recess behind a sliding panel just above the right bell pull. He was unable to steal it at that moment, however because the coachman was watching him. He explains all of this to Watson before being bid ‘good-night’ by a familiar-sounding youth. Who, promptly manages to get lost in the crowd.

    The following morning, Holmes, explains his findings to the King. When, Holmes, Watson, and the King arrive at Adler’s house at 8 am. When, her elderly maidservant sardonically informs them that she has left the country by the 5.15 train from Charing Cross railway station. Holmes quickly goes to the photograph’s hiding spot, finding a photo of Irene Adler in an evening dress and a letter dated midnight addressed to him. In the letter, Adler tells Holmes. He did very well in finding the photograph and taking her in with his disguises. She also reveals that she posed as the youth who bid Holmes ‘good-night.’ Adler has left England with Norton, “a better man” than the King, adding she will not compromise the King, despite being “cruelly wronged” by him. She had kept the photo only to protect herself from any further action he might take.

    The King exclaims how amazing Adler is (“Would she not have made an admirable queen? Is it not a pity she was not on my level?”) Holmes replies Miss Adler is indeed on a much different level from the King (by which he means higher – an implication lost on the King). Thanking Holmes effusively, the King offers a valuable emerald ring from his finger as further reward. Holmes says there is something he values even more highly – the photograph of Adler. Ignoring the handshake proffered by the King, Holmes leaves. He keeps the photograph as a reminder of her cleverness, and of being beaten by a woman’s wit.

    Watson has already called her “the late Irene Adler,” confirming her death sometime in the intervening three years (between the story’s setting and the publication of “A Scandal in Bohemia”). Watson also tells that, since their meeting, Holmes always refers to her by the honorable title of “the woman”.

    The story is high on humour and even wit, but low on plot intensity. So, before I close, let me take you through this interesting and humorous conversation that happens between Holmes and Dr Watson on page 9 and 10 of the story:  

    “Quite so,” he answered, lighting a cigarette, and throwing himself down into the armchair. “You see, but you do not observe. The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen the steps which lead up from the hall to this room.” *(States Holmes)

    “Frequently” *(Replies Watson)

    “How often?” *(asks Holmes)

    “Well some hundreds of times.” *(Replies Watson)

    “Then how many are there?” *(Questions Holmes)

    “How many! I don’t know.” *(says Dr Watson)

    “Quite so! You have not observed. And yet you have seen. That is just my point. Now I know that there are seventeen steps, because I have both seen and observed …….” *(says Holmes)

    *Not part of the text in the book.

*****

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

 

 

 

 

Advertisements

Short story: ‘MORAL DILEMMA’ … science fiction

Copyright@shravancharitymission

    Inter galactic expansion had followed the development of humungous hyperspace cruisers and precision drives that had enabled man to colonize far flung frontiers of space. However, these giant cruisers were unsuitable for the short haul emergency calls. Starship cruisers did not use conventional rocket fuel but nuclear power and carried limited amount of bulky liquid fuel. For short emergency trips small space ships were designed made of light metal and plastics to be run on liquid fuel to be spared by cruisers that housed these ships. One drawback was that these ships carried only that amount of fuel which was enough for their mission, not an ounce less or an ounce more. Extra weight would jeopardize their mission at the cost of necessary payload.

    The small ship ‘Twinkle’ was speeding along into the dark bowels of space carrying essential medical supplies on which lives of several colonists depended. Captain Schmidt did a bit of isometrics and thought about a cup of coffee from the vacuum dispenser. Suddenly the corner of his eye caught the dial of the fuel gauge. It was showing a little above zero. Fuel consumption was not normal. It was but a natural corollary for the captain to divine that some extra unauthorized and unexplained weight was on board. He looked at the closet containing the only empty unused space. The heat gradient indicated the presence of a human being.

     ‘Come out’ gently intoned Capt Schmidt.

    After a pause of several seconds a coy, diffident and a spry girl appeared and gently walked to the captain’s desk.

     ‘Who are you and what are you doing here?’ asked the captain softly, in order, not to frighten the child, who was barely 12 years old.

    ‘I am Zoya from the Southern Nebula. I was stealing a ride to meet my parents who are stranded in AlphaZ2.’ She answered confidently despite her distraught demeanour.

    The captain stared in disbelief. ‘But how in the devil did you get into the ship.’

    ‘It was not difficult to enter unnoticed. People thought I had come to bid farewell to my folks. Later on I stumbled on to this small cabin. You are going to fine me or give me some sort of punishment?’ The girl asked apprehensively.

    ‘My dear girl you have put me into a great problem. The rules are very strict. Unauthorized persons, objects and any living organism are to be thrown out or jettisoned.’ He said almost in a whisper, not trying to panic the girl.

    ‘You mean you will leave me in space to die for something I am not responsible.’ The girl was now almost in tears.

     ‘Please try and understand- the mission is important but your body mass has increased the fuel consumption jeopardizing the mission. The colonists who are awaiting life-saving drugs will also die.’ The captain said as if pronouncing a death verdict. Never in the galactic frontiers was such a situation encountered by anyone before.

    The captain put the ship into auto-mode and fine tuned the astral bearings of the planet the ship was headed for.

    ‘My child you are not going to die’ said the captain happily, as if solving an intricate puzzle.

    ‘Everything is on auto mode. You will reach the target planet. Only don’t answer any calls or messages which may flash on the console.’

    Having, said that the captain slowly walked out of the air lock and into the evacuation tunnel.

    This story is based on one of the finest SCI-FICTION stories of America and is more than 60 years old. Probably it was published in 1963. When, I had read it. The language sequence of, the plot are entirely mine and not copied from anywhere. I am happy that I have been able to dig out the scientific space diction without much of a difficulty. The point is whether the captain was morally justified in leaving the ship in the hands of a child, thereby endangering the lives of so many. Well there are so many angles to this dilemma. (As narrated by Ajit Kumar Tripathi)

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE IRONY OF TASH, MOUSTACHE OR MOOCH

Copyright@shravancharitymission

 

 

    Recently a friend of mine ventured into buying a rickety second hand car that was more than 18 feet long, but more than half a decade old. I asked, ‘why this car? Instead, you could have bought a brand new hatchback in the same budget?’ He replied ‘My dear friend you will not understand this, yeh mooch wali gadi hai.’ He, like me, had no mooch but knew all about the varied nuances of a mooch. Another friend of mine since college days, sported a handlebar wider than his face. Just, because he wanted to look like an ostentatious macho, to all those known to him, and like an army specimen, to all the unknown. But sadly, girls rated his fertile front as hideous because of his mooch. From a distance, he was easily recognizable, as one could clearly see only a bushy moustache, walking up and down without a face–so virile was his tash.

    Then, I also knew of salesman resembling the famous dacoit Veerapan with his deadly moustaches sprouting all over his face. But this was much before Veerapan actually surfaced. The lady customers refused, to be attended by him even when he was very God fearing. Perhaps, he couldn’t change the scary image of such a well mustachioed face

        Mel Brooks, American actor, producer and director justifies it well on the silver screen for the select few and goes on to say, ‘A cinema villain essentially needs a moustache, so he can twiddle with it gleefully, as he cooks up his next plan.’ But it still doesn’t make me believe if Moochs, have a direct link with virile manhood.

    Media reports insinuate, Indo-China confrontation is almost over. But then the handlebar-mooch remains, like its sardonic thorn, that is upping the ante. And unless one side droops, the likelihood of a war is very much there. So, not only men, even, countries wear moustaches. But then India happens to be a she country, then how can she have a moustache. And what about China? Well they prefer calling it ‘ancestral land’ … gender neutral to reap the benefit of both the sexes. So then, I don’t think there should be a problem for either of them, to pull out … as ladies needn’t even have a mooch ki ladai. Buy yes, both can behind the scenes give, ‘moochon mein tav’ in front of their countrymen.

    Moustache, no doubt is the royal asset of a man, which is more loyal than his hair. That triggers and circulates his wild airs. And, while, one can see its pontification right below the eyes. He  should not make it the focal point of his false prestige. 

*

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases. Should you wish to donate for the cause the bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(CAN BE BOUGHT FROM ON LINE BOOK STORES OR WRITE TO US FOR COPIES)

*****

 

 

 

 

THE ALLURING WORLD OF EARLY MORNING

Copyright@shravancharitymission

 

 

    Each morning as I go and sit along the free flowing river under the old Banyan tree I get this tranquil feel of how little it takes for a man to smile. But the situation reverses when I reach my workplace, where, even a smirk is a task.

    The water is cold, just as cold as the human beings of today even when the globe is warming up. One can now see the redness in the sky announcing the arrival of the sun that is duty bound to give me light and energy. He is my old friend who comes to meet me daily in the morning, barring those cloudy days. A Few patches of dark clouds, semaphore from the sky about the arriving rain, realizing water on earth is only getting scarce. The birds around, up-tempo their melodious chorus, before the blasting car horns, beat their retreat.

    The river has a long journey to undertake. It has to meet the sea. Post which it’ll lose its identity. Yet it is calm barring the routine splashes that hit the shores. The embankment is still and unmoved with some stray dogs yawning and stretching. Early risers, for a longer and healthier life, are out for their morning walks, and even jogs. There is harmonious silence all around when you can hear the nature talking to you. It is my time to drench in her and her time to drench in me. Some birds, in formation, appearing like arrows in the sky, about twenty in number are crossing the river. No one knows where they are coming from and where they are heading to. They appear to be in a great hurry. Nevertheless, they are giving an excellent fly-past, reminding you of the Republic-day-Parade. One can distinctly hear their calls but can’t make out what they are saying. Perhaps, discussing about, human atrocities.

    Many things in my life have gone stale. But not this daily setting. Where, I come and perch everyday as it unshackles me from the enduring shackles of life for some memorable moments. Otherwise, there is always so much to worry, so little to rejoice, so much to plan and all the more to execute. But for the present everything is set aside as it is my divine time. That refreshes me to take on the grueling day.

    Slowly, I start walking back as the sun begins to tower up.  Morning and the remaining day are two different worlds. And only the ones who have experienced it, know about it.

*

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

Share if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases. Should you wish to donate for the cause the bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(CAN BE BOUGHT FROM ON LINE BOOK STORES OR WRITE TO US FOR COPIES)

*****

 

 

RAHUL GANDHI AND THE LESSON FROM GITA

Copyright@shravancharitymission    

That one man who follows Gita to the hilt is Rahul Gandhi. Can you imagine the amount of failures he has had in his political career? Countless! I would say. Yet he sticks to his guns which is his political career. For, he truly believes in karma alone. Where, he doesn’t look for success in his deeds.

    But, can you imagine. The manner in which. India ridicules this great young man. Even, today, with the great disaster of Uttar Pradesh tied around his neck. He was busy meeting farmers from Tamil Nadu.

    So, isn’t it amazing. The way our media and citizenry ridicules him, no end. I will withdraw this post of mine. If anyone shows me a media clip praising him for his political career until now. Yet he continues undeterred. So there is much to learn from him while in adversity.

    And last but not the least. It also speaks of we Indians and how much we practice Gita. Well if you go by this analogy. You won’t find too many Indians praising him for doing his karma alone. Rather everyone is critical and even jocular about his failures. So are we practicing Gits in the true sense?

*****

By Kamlesh Tripathi

CHANAKYA NEETI-1

Copyright@shravancharitymission

SAYS CHANAKYA—1

Vishadapyamritam grahammedhyadapi kanchanam,

Nichadpayutama vidya striratnam dushkuladapi.

If there is nectar in poison, accept it. If there is precious metal or object in filth, retrieve it. If a low bred man has some good knowledge, wisdom, art or quality, imbibe it. If a woman born to a family of disrepute turns out to be a lady of high qualities, possess such a gem.

*

Strinaam diguna aaharo budhisatasam chaturguna,

Sahasam shargunam chav kamoastgun uchayate.

Compared to males, the females, eat twice the amount of food, possess cleverness four times, display courage six times and have hunger for sex eight times.

*

Aanratam sahasam maya murkhtavmatilubadhata,

Ashochatavam nirdayatam strinam dosha: swabhavjhaha.

Speaking falsehood—starting a work without any due diligence or thought, daredevilry, deceitful behavior, foolish acts, greed, impurity and cruelty. These are things, basic to the nature of women.

*

Bhojayam bhojanshaktitascha ratishaktivarragna,

Vibhavo danshaktishcha naslapasya tapas: phalam.

Only great penance can earn one: Rich food to eat and a good digestive power to dispose it—A beautiful woman, for a wife and the virility to ravish her—and riches with charitable disposition to use the money for good causes.

*

Yasya putro vashiibhooto bharya chandasnugaamini,

Vibhave yashcha santushtsatasya swarg eihev he.

This very earth is heaven for one whose son is obedient. The wife is faithful and whose own heart is content with whatever money he has.

*

Te putra yepiturbhakta sa pita yastu poshakah,

Tanmitram yasya vishwasahah: sa bharya yatra nirvrati.

True son is the one who is obedient to his father. A true father is the one who looks after his sons. Similarly, true friend is the one who is trustworthy and true wife is one who makes her husband happy.

*****

Translated by Kamlesh Tripathi

DO YOUR JOB WELL AND YOU WON’T FEEL HURT.

Copyright@shravancharitymission

 

 

    On his first day in office as President when Abraham Lincoln entered to give his inaugural address. One rich and aristocratic appearing person stood up and said, ‘Mr. Lincoln, you should not forget that your father used to make shoes for my family.’ And with that the whole Senate laughed. They thought they had made a fool of Lincoln.

    But certain people are made of a totally different mettle. Lincoln was one of them. He looked at the man directly in the eye and said,

    ‘Sir, I know that my father used to make shoes for your family, and there will be many others here, who too, wear shoes made by him. Because, he made them the way nobody else could, as he was a creator. His shoes were not just shoes. He poured his whole soul into them. I want to ask you, if you have any complaint about his workmanship? Because, I know, how to make shoes myself. If you have any complaint I can make you another pair of shoes. But as far as I know, nobody has ever complained about my father’s shoes. He was a genius and a great creator and I am proud of my father.’

    The whole Senate was dumb struck. They could not understand what kind of man Abraham Lincoln was. He was proud because his father did his job so well. That not even a single complaint had ever been heard of.

    Moral of the story: If you are excellent at your work no matter what work you do happiness will always be yours.

*

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

Share if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases. Should you wish to donate for the cause the bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(CAN BE BOUGHT FROM ON LINE BOOK STORES OR WRITE TO US FOR COPIES)

*****