Tag Archives: scotland

Facts & Figures: Holinshed’s Chronicles

Copyright@shravancharitymission

    You might have heard of Holinshed’s Chronicles in case you studied English Literature. But for those of you who haven’t, let me give you a glimpse of it. Holinshed’s Chronicles otherwise is a detailed subject that has influenced many iconic writers and playwrights.  

    Holinshed’s Chronicles, also known as Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, is a collaborative work published in several volumes and two editions. The first edition was in 1577, and the second in 1587. It was a large, comprehensive description of British History published in three volumes (England, Scotland and Ireland).

    The Chronicles have traditionally been a source of interest and writing influence on many big time writers, because of its extensive links to Shakespeare’s history plays, as well as King Lear, Macbeth, and the lesser known Cymbeline (Cymbeline, is also known as The Tragedy of Cymbeline or Cymbeline, King of Britain) is a play by William Shakespeare set in Ancient Britain and based on the legends that formed part of the Matter of Britain concerning the early Celtic British King Cunobeline) of pre-Roman Britain.

    The Chronicles could have also been a primary source for many other literary writers of the Renaissance period such as Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser and George Daniel. Now let me tell you how these Chronicles came into existence.

    In 1548, Reginald Wolfe, a London printer, conceived the idea of creating a “Universal Cosmography of the whole world (Cosmography is a branch of science that deals with the general features of the universe, including mother earth), and among them certain histories, of every known nation.” He wanted the work to be printed in English and he also wanted maps and illustrations in the book. Wolfe acquired many of John Leland’s works (John Leland was an English poet and antiquary—dealing in rare books), and with these he constructed chronologies and drew maps that were up-to-date. When Wolfe realised he would not be able to complete this project on his own, he hired Raphael Holinshed and William Harrison to assist him.

    Wolfe died with the work still unfinished in 1573, and the project—changed to a work specifically about the British Isles—and was run by a consortium of three members of the London stationers. They retained Holinshed, who employed Harrison, Richard Stanyhurst, Edmund Campion and John Hooker. In 1577, the work was published in two volumes after some censorship by the Privy Council of some of Stanyhurst’s contribution on Ireland.

    The Chronicles narrative is characterised by a set of rhetorical figures and thematic paradigms that establish the national, royal, chivalrous and heroic ideals that define a state, its monarch, its leaders, and the political role of the common people.

Influence on Shakespeare:

    Shakespeare is widely believed to have used the revised second edition of the Chronicles (published in 1587) as the source for most of his history plays, including the plot of Macbeth first performed in 1606, and for portions of King Lear and Cymbeline.

    Several other playwrights, such as Christopher Marlowe, also used the Chronicles as a source.

The Chronicles and Macbeth:

    Shakespeare used Holinshed’s work extensively in Macbeth, but in modified form. An instance is the Three Witches, whom Holinshed describes as “creatures of the elderwood … nymphs or fairies”. Nymphs and fairies are generally viewed as beautiful and youthful, but Shakespeare’s three witches in Macbeth are ugly, dark, and bizarre. It is believed that he made the change to heighten the suspense and darkness of the play. However, the Chronicles lacked any descriptions of Macbeth’s character, and therefore Shakespeare improvised on several points. The characters Banquo and Fleance in Macbeth were also taken from Holinshed’s works, but they are now considered to be inventions of the 16th century.

    The primary difference between the Chronicles and Shakespeare is characterisation. The character of Macbeth is primarily depicted as a good ruler, a king who was fair and just for 17 years. The Shakespeare’s plot displays King Duncan as a minor character and a weak king. It is possible that the reading of Shakespeare’s King Duncan was inspired by the tale of King Duffe contained within the Chronicle. The story follows a similar narrative, where, King Duffe and his murderer Donwald, closely mirror the narrative of King Duncan and Macbeth. The bad omens following the murder of Duffe are similarly mirrored in Shakespeare’s narrative.

Synopsis:

The Chronicles tale of Macbeth differs from Shakespeare’s version in numerous ways. The play features a scene in which Banquo and Macbeth encounter three women and each speak of a prophecy that would contribute to the characterisation of these women as, ‘other worldly’. 

    In the Chronicles version, Macbeth is a much more sympathetic character. King Duncan is depicted as a weak ruler who had violated the Scottish laws of succession by failing to consult with the “Thanes”, or Lords, before naming his son.

    In Holinshed’s Chronicles, Banquo is shown as a scheming character—he is an accomplice in Macbeth’s murder of Duncan. In comparison to Shakespeare’s version, which has Duncan murdered in his sleep, Duncan is slain in battle and his death is not highly detailed.

    In the Chronicles, Macbeth ruled Scotland not briefly, but for 10 years. He was apparently a capable and wise monarch who implemented commendable laws. Fearing that Banquo will seize the kingdom, Macbeth invites him for a supper where he intends to kill Banquo and his son. He succeeds in killing Banquo but his son, Fleance, flees to Wales. Macbeth, convinced by the witches of his invincibility, commits outrageous acts against his subjects becoming a cruel and paranoid ruler.

   The tale ends when Macbeth is slain by Macduff who then brings his head to the son of the original King, Malcolm.

   The Chronicles and King Lear:

    It is believed that Shakespeare would have used the revised second edition of the Chronicles which was published in 1587. Shakespeare’s King Lear loosely follows the story detailed in the Chronicles but it is unlikely that the Chronicles acted as a primary source.

    Holinshed’s chronicles proves a point that even for a world acclaimed writer ideas can come from anywhere including history and mythology.

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

MIRAGE

(Published in February 2020. The book is a collection of eight short stories. It is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Notion Press)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

 

 

 

Book review: Macbeth by William Shakespeare

Copyright@shravancharitymission

Khidki (Window)

–Read India Initiative—

This is only an attempt to create interest in reading. We may not get the time to read all the books in our lifetime. But such reviews, talk and synopsis will at least convey what the book is all about.

    The complete title of the play is, ‘The Tragedy of Macbeth’ written by one and only one, William Shakespeare. The play is thought to have been first performed in 1606. It dramatizes the political ambition of those who seek power for their own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, who was the patron of Shakespeare’s acting company, Macbeth, most clearly, reflects, the playwright’s relationship with his sovereign. It was first published in the Folio of 1623, possibly from a prompt book, and is Shakespeare’s shortest tragedy. Some famous quotes of Macbeth are …

    ‘Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn, and cauldron bubble—this is a rhyming couplet in the play chanted by the supernatural three witches. The witches represent pure evil. They are not real characters, and, indeed, they can be seen simply as the voice of temptation in the mind of Macbeth.

    Another quote that I liked was, ‘Fair is foul, and foul is fair.’ 

    Vishal Bhardwaj’s movie, Maqbool is an adaptation of the play Macbeth. The master quote of the play is, ‘by the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes’ rhymed by the second witch in the play.

    Macbeth has a sinister plot. A brave Scottish General named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a witch-trio that one day he will become the King of Scotland. Driven by ambition, and spurred to action, by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and occupies the Scottish throne. He is then wracked with guilt and paranoia. Forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler. The bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness and death.

    Shakespeare’s source for the story is the account of Macbeth, King of Scotland, Macduff, and Duncan in Holinshed’s Chronicles (1587), a history of England, Scotland, and Ireland familiar to Shakespeare and his contemporaries. Although, the events in the play differ extensively from the history of the real Macbeth. The events of the tragedy are usually associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.

    In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, and generally they don’t mention, its title aloud, referring to it instead as, “The Scottish Play”. Over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. It has been adapted to film, television, opera, novels, comics, and other media.

    Three witches tell the Scottish general Macbeth that he will one day be King of Scotland. Prompted by his wife, Macbeth kills the king, becomes the new king, and kills more people out of paranoia. Civil war erupts to overthrow Macbeth, resulting in more deaths.

    On a bleak Scottish moorland, Macbeth and Banquo, two of King Duncan’s generals, discover three strange women (witches). The witches prophesy that Macbeth will be promoted twice. Once to the Thane of Cawdor (a rank of the aristocracy bestowed by grateful kings) and second as the King of Scotland. But the caution is, only Banquo’s descendants, will be further kings, and where Banquo isn’t promised any kingdom himself. The generals want to hear more, but the “weird sisters” the witches suddenly disappear. 

    Soon afterwards, King Duncan names Macbeth, Thane of Cawdor as a reward for his success in the recent battles. The promotion seems to support the prophecy. The King then proposes to make a brief visit that night to Macbeth’s castle at Inverness. Lady Macbeth receives news from her husband about the prophecy and his new title. She vows to help him become king by whatever means necessary. 

    Macbeth returns to his castle, followed almost immediately, by King Duncan. The Macbeths plot together, to kill Duncan and wait until everyone is asleep. At the appointed time, Lady Macbeth gives the guards, drugged wine, so that Macbeth can enter and kill the King. But he regrets the act almost immediately, but his wife reassures him. She leaves the bloody daggers by the side of the dead king, just before Macduff, a nobleman, arrives. When Macduff discovers the murder, Macbeth kills the drunken guards in a show of rage and retribution. Duncan’s sons, Malcolm and Donalbain, flee, fearing for their own lives; but they are, nevertheless, blamed for the murder. 

    Macbeth becomes the King of Scotland but is plagued by feelings of insecurity. He remembers the prophecy that Banquo’s descendants will inherit the throne and arranges for Banquo and his son Fleance to be killed. In the darkness, Banquo is murdered, but his son escapes the assassins. At his state banquet that night, Macbeth sees the ghost of Banquo and worries the courtiers with his mad response. Lady Macbeth dismisses the court and unsuccessfully tries to calm her husband.

    The witches still prophesy that the Scottish succession will still come from Banquo’s son. Macbeth embarks on a reign of terror, slaughtering many, including Macduff’s family. Macduff goes to seek Malcolm (one of Duncan’s sons who had fled) at the court of the English King. Malcolm is young and unsure of himself, but Macduff, pained with grief, persuades him to lead an army against Macbeth. 

    Macbeth looks out for the witches who say that he will be safe until the local wood, by the name of Birnam Wood, marches into the battle against him. Finally the wood of Birnam from Perthshire, Scotland comes to Dunsinane, Macbeth’s castle.

    Macbeth feels safe in his remote castle at Dunsinane until he is told that now Birnam Wood is moving towards him. Malcolm’s army is carrying branches from the forest as camouflage for their assault on Macbeth’s stronghold. Meanwhile, an overwrought, and conscience-ridden, Lady Macbeth, walks in her sleep and tells her secrets to her doctor. She then commits suicide. As the final battle commences, Macbeth hears of Lady Macbeth’s suicide and mourns.

    In the battle, Macbeth hews violently, but the English forces gradually, overwhelm his army and castle. On the battlefield, Macbeth encounters the vengeful Macduff, who declares that he was not “of woman born” but was instead “untimely ripped” from his mother’s womb (what we now call birth by caesarean section). Though he realizes that he is doomed, Macbeth continues to fight until Macduff kills and beheads him. Malcolm, now the King of Scotland, declares his benevolent intentions for the country and invites all to see him crowned at Scone in Scotland.

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

   

INTERESTING FACTS & QUOTES-13

Copyright@shravancharitymission

A controversial ad for a Tel-Aviv hospital portrayed a fetus wearing a military beret, with a caption ‘recipient of the presidential award of excellence, 2038.’ The ad was later withdrawn but the idea it spoke of was very clear.

*

The sun never sets on the British Empire has been used to describe the vast expanse of the British Empire where there was always daylight, at least in one part of their Empire spread across the world.

*

 England, Wales and Scotland are  part of an island forming Great Britain, adding Northern Ireland across the sea makes up the United Kingdom. Add a few miscellaneous islands and the Republic of Ireland to that, and we have the British Isles.

*

When politicians quarrel over diverse interpretations of the constitution it shows that they, knowingly or unknowingly hold it in high regard.

*

Weather is the day-to-day state of the atmosphere, and its short-term variation in minutes to weeks. Whereas, climate is the weather of a place averaged over a period of time, often 30 years.

*

According to a 2015 Nielson report India is the second largest English language print book market in the world with over 9000 publishers producing 90,000 books annually. According to some estimates, an incredible 94% of global content passes through India at some stage of publishing.

*

Nearly 200 million books were sold in the UK last year and the industry is worth 5.7 billion pounds. And whilst the UK remains the largest exporter of physical books in the world, the UK Publishers Association noted last year that India has to have the most exciting publishing industry in the world.

*

According to the Congressional Research Service, Americans own nearly, 50% of the 650 million guns available worldwide, which would bring it to about one gun for every man, woman, and child in the country. Indeed, it is a country where many children—including man-child—do have access to guns. Nearly half of all Americans said they grew up in a house with guns, and almost four in 10 say they grew up in a home with guns.

*

According to the Census 2011, 41% of India’s population is under 18. Yet only 4.5% of the total budget is earmarked for them.

*

Have you seen or heard of a bigger glutton and despot than Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe who celebrated his 91st birthday with elephant on menu for guests at the lavish 1-million pound bash. According to the mirror, two young elephants were shot and feasted on by the president’s 20,000 guests while the country’s poor, struggle to scrape a living. A farmer had donated the elephants to Mugabe along with a lion and a crocodile to be stuffed.

*

India is posed to be world’s 3rd largest construction market by 2025.

*

What do the four horses of apocalypse mean: Four figures in the Book of Revelation who symbolize the evils to come at the end of the world. The figure representing conquest rides a white horse; war, a red horse; famine, a black horse; and plague, a pale horse. They are often called the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.

*

Lakshadeep has in all 36 islands.

*

Indian wedding industry is now valued at 25.5 billion dollars a year.

*

Did you know that every person in the world with an email address receives on an average 72 emails per day?

***

Now lets come to some interesting quotes:

We are what our thoughts have made us; so take care about what you think. Words are secondary. Thoughts live; they travel far—SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

*

The biggest danger of this terrorism and extremism is the tarnishing of the reputation of our beloved religion … we will not allow this to happen—MOHAMMED BIN SALMAN CROWN PRINCE SAUDI ARABIA RIYADH

*

The promise given was a necessity of the past, the word broken is a necessity of the present—Machiavelli

*

What is a cynic? A man who knows the price of everything and value of nothing—OSCAR WILDE

*

I believe in being strong when everything is going wrong–Anonymous

***

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

 

 

 

 

MAKE #CRICKET AS POPULAR AS #SOCCER–START ANOTHER #WORLD #CUP AMONGST CRICKET PLAYING CONTINENTS

downloaddownload (1)Copyright@shravancharitymission

By Kamlesh Tripathi

In the Cricket world cup 2015 only fourteen teams are playing. Which are divided into two pools that will play 49 matches in two countries, to decide the world cup title. International Cricket Council (ICC) recognizes more than 125 countries that play cricket. But many are not up to the mark to be included in the international circuit, such as the World Cup. ICC has 10 full members, 38 Associate Members and 59 Affiliate Members and that adds up to 107 countries. The West Indies cricket team does not represent a single country.

The world today has 196 countries and with that logic, cricket looks like an isolated game with only 14 countries, vying for the world cup which is far from a world phenomenon. Even when the cheer and clapping is getting louder each day as the tournament progresses in those 14 countries. And so, this magnificent pageant that is hosted every 4 years is only witnessed by a small section of the world. As the game is not as popular as soccer which is played in almost all the countries.

download (2)download (3)

In the same fashion we also have the shorter version of the game called the T-20 cricket world cup, every four years. And, in addition we keep having individual test matches, ODIs and T-20 series between countries which are generally followed by the supporters of their respective countries only. Recently, BCCI has also launched IPL series to promote, both domestic and international cricket. But, even with all of this, cricket is not getting sold exponentially beyond the 14 countries that participate in the world cup. So, there is a greater need to popularize cricket in less and non-cricket playing countries, by shedding traditional, autocratic and bureaucratic ways of thinking and dealing with cricket.

download (4)

The 14 countries that currently play in the international world cup circuit are- India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangla Desh, Australia, New Zealand, Afghanistan, UAE, South Africa, Zimbabwe, West Indies, England, Ireland & Scotland.

This more or less promotes cricket in their respective countries only, and to a certain extent in their neighbouring countries. But if cricket needs to spread to other countries by leaps and bounds. Something out-of-the-box needs to be thought through. A better way of popularizing cricket would be to have another world class tournament. Where, we could bunch teams of 3-4 countries, continent wise, and have a world cup tournament amongst them, such as;

Team 1: India, Sri Lanka & Bangladesh

Team 2: Australia, New Zealand

Team 3: Pakistan, Afghanistan and UAE

Team 4: South Africa, Zimbabwe

Team 5: West Indies, England, Ireland and Scotland

HOW WILL THIS HELP IN PROMOTING CRICKET?

Cricket was never played in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, since Adam was a lad. It only came along with the Britishers and became an endearing and formidable game, close to a religion. Which goes to show, if publicized, facilitated and marketed well. It has the potential to become a game as popular as soccer.

Individual countries, and more pointedly India, may have done well to promote cricket in their own country. But Cricket as such has not seen a deluge of popularity, breaking barriers of borders and continents. Rather, it cocooned in its ego and bureaucracy and never butterflied across the world as soccer or lawn tennis. To sight and example, for so many years Bangladesh had to wait to get Test status and same goes for countries like Ireland and Scotland, that are still waiting.

WHAT WILL CHANGE BY BUNCHING TEAMS AND HAVING A WORLD CUP AMONGST CONTINENTS?

Just citing an example. Increase the team members in the squad of Team 1, as referred above (India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh) by 3-5 and include new talent from China, Nepal, Myanmar, Maldives or any other country close by and give them a chance in warm up matches, or even just let them be with the team or include them in practice sessions or as twelfth man to be viewed by spectators back home. As this also will popularize the game back in their countries in a big way. For, didn’t it suddenly make a world of difference when some of our athletes were seen on world stage, in various disciplines at the Olympics?

And, hold this world cup tournament among continents every two years. As this will help in good publicity and brand building because public memory is too short, and keep the venue in some non-playing country or countries that play, but are not world class like China, Nepal, Myanmar, Maldives, Kabul, Spain, or the US to name a few. Request their dignitaries or popular figures to inaugurate and play the game at these inaugural matches. ICC is rich and could allocate a budget for this. Also, give special incentives including discounted tickets to tourists who want to watch the game of cricket from non-cricket playing countries. And just before the tournament, legendary and star cricketers depending upon their popularity like Sachin Tendulkar, Imran Khan, Viv Richards, Ricky Ponting, Sanat Jaisurya, to name a few, could give cricketing lessons to youngsters who want to play cricket.

Give this world cup tournament a well thought through, heavy weight title, making it look like a competition among titans, continents, giants, bravo juggernauts or even ET. For, this will have a domino effect in popularizing the game by leaps and bounds. Especially, in non playing continents or even non-playing countries or countries where the game is not played to its full potential. For where is the continued rejoice if the game continues to hover and be competed around in the same surroundings. Perhaps, the present day cricket may give you a feeling. As if it has been discarded and rejected by rest of the world and only adopted by few countries, with world potential still to be realized; and all in the interest of cricket.

*****