Tag Archives: continent

INTERESTING FACTS FIGURES & QUOTES 48: The Correlation between British Empire and English Language

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    There was a time when the sun did not set on the British Empire. The saying implied the vastness of the British Empire. Historians inferred that roughly 25% of the earth’s landmass was in control of the British. The Empire was so extensive, that at any point of time, there was daylight in one of its colonies. This resulted in English language, travelling to several continents and many countries across the globe. India was no exception. English gradually became the lingua-franca in many countries.

    There was also a deluge of Europeans who started migrating to America from the Continent and British Isles. So English language too, travelled with them to Amercia. Historically speaking, Europeans were one of the most aggressive and ambitious race on planet earth. They managed to change the name of New Amsterdam to New York (in the honour the Duke of York). They bought New Amsterdam from the local tribe (the Lenapes). And with all this the spread of English language continued hammer and tongs. Gradually, it even travelled, to down and under (Australia and New Zealand) and even Africa. In other words, wherever, British established colonies English language gained roots. Europe has given to the world great seafarers and explorers. English language concomitantly travelled to wherever they went. The language of English was also skilfully taught and used in administration and day-to-day living, and today it connects the world.

    British rule in India began around 1757. English language in India is therefore, over 250 years old. The British left India around 70 years ago, after which English language in India has stood on its own spine. Since then the language has Indianised and even undergone a change in tone and tenor. With the advent of social media English Language has even made deep inroads into rural areas.

    A number of high-flying authors have emerged in India and they have been able to decolonise the traditional English oeuvre. The assortment of Indian authors is wide. But there is a threat to English language in India and that is from Hinglish (a blend of Hindi and English) and conversely there is also a threat to Hindi from English.  

    There is nothing definitive about which way the camel is going to sit, but yes, one can only leave it to the long term opportunities that the languages wish to partner with.

By Kamlesh Tripathi

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https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

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Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

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Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

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BRIEF HISTORY OF CONTINENTS

Copyright@shravancharitymission

CONTINENTAL AREAS

ASIA: 17,208,000 SQUARE MILES

AFRICA: 11,608,000 SQUARE MILES

NORTH AMERICA: 9,449,000 SQUARE MILES

SOUTH AMERICA: 6,880,000 SQUARE MILES

ANTARCTICA: 5,100,000 SQUARE MILES

EUROPE: 3,841,000 SQUARE MILES

AUSTRALIA: 2,970,000 SQUARE MILES

    Out of the total earth area, around one-third is land, and balance two-third is water–ocean. Yet, the major land divisions—the continents—are the ones that give shape and physical identity to the planet.

    The seven continents represent some 57 million square miles in area, portioned unequally among them. They range in size from Asia, being the largest, to Australia, being the smallest. Although Europe and Asia form one large mass, they are usually regarded as two continents, mainly due to the cultural differences between their peoples.

    The seven continents as they appear today represent just one episode in an ongoing scenario of the wandering land masses. It is a process whose history dates back to the initial formation of continental material on Earth’s crust almost four billion years ago—a process called ‘plate tectonics.’

    The crust and the top portion of the mantle form a rigid shell around the planet that is broken up into 16 large sections known as plates. Heat generated inside Earth is distributed through convection current which causes the plates to move slowly. This sort of movement has been going on for hundreds of millions of years.

    Most geologists believe that the ‘continents’ were created when vast plates of rock collided, forcing one to slide under another in a process called ‘subduction.’ The crust then melted and formed magma, or molten rock. Erupting to the surface, the magma built volcanic islands that eventually fused with other islands on adjoining plates—becoming the first continental material.

HOW WERE CONTINENTS FORMED

    As Earth’s continental masses grew bigger, moving all the while, they shifted in relation with each other and coalesced into different arrangements over hundreds of millions of years. The current configuration of continents is just a temporary one in the eons-long process of the plate tectonics.

    Three times during the past billion years, drifting landmasses have merged to form supercontinents.

    In between these stages of continental drift, they split into smaller landmasses before recombining again. Scientists predict that a new supercontinent, ‘Pangaea Ultima,’ will eventually form, 250 million years from now.

TERMINOLOGY 

CONTINENT: Comes from the Latin continens, “held together.” One of Earth’s seven large masses of land.

TECTONICS: Comes from the Greek tekton, “builder.” Study of the changes in Earth’s crust and the forces that produce such changes.

SUBDUCTION ZONE: The oceanic trench area in which the seafloor ‘underthrusts’ an adjacent plate, dragging, accumulated sediments, downward into Earth’s upper mantle.

ALFRED WEGENER THE EARTH SCIENTIST

    German Earth Scientist Alfred Wegener (1880-1930), was among the first to use balloons to track air currents. He participated in expeditions to Greenland to study polar air circulation but became better known for his theory of continental drift. People had already noticed that the coastlines of western Africa and eastern South America seemed to match, but Wegener found evidence that the continents had been joined: because of similar fossils from both sides of the Atlantic and tropical species in Arctic areas. He posited the existence of a supercontinent, Pangaea (All Lands) that eventually broke up, and he presented his ideas in the Origin of Continents and Oceans—but few believed him. In the 1950s and 1960s, studies of the ocean floor demonstrated a mechanism for crustal movement, is when Wegener’s theory of continental drift gained acceptance.

BRIEF HISTORY OF EARTH

500 MILLION YEARS ago, a chunk broke off a single continent. Shallow waters spawned the first multicellular creatures.

300 MILLION YEARS ago, some of today’s mountains formed. A new ice age covered Earth’s southern regions.

225 MILLION YEARS AGO, the earliest dinosaurs roamed a single continent that stretched from Pole to Pole.

100 MILLION YEARS ago, cracks across the one continent, known as Pangaea, formed rifts that evolved into oceans.

50 MILLION YEARS ago, a climate changing meteor crashed into Earth and the highest mountains began their uprise.

20,000 YEARS ago, ice sheets a mile deep gouged out the Great Lakes and then receded, raising sea levels.

Posted by Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be its undying characteristic. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****