Tag Archives: kautilya

INTERESTING FACTS: PADMAVYUHA & CHAKRAVYUHA

Copyright@shravancharitymission

    Padmavyuha and Chakravyuha are strategies and tactics of war. What we in Hindi call Padmavyuha or Chakravyuha is a military formation used to surround enemies, depicted in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. It resembles a labyrinth of multiple defensive walls.

    Ancient Indians had perfected the art of arraying, displaying, arranging, and lining of troops, called the ‘vyuha.’ In the Rig Veda, there are many references to substantiate this. A war hymn says that Maruts (ie soldiers) moved in linear formation like birds. Another hymn says, they assumed the shape of a man, a horse, or a pigeon at different times. There are references to battle formations in the Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.

    The Mahabharata has the most detailed description of the ‘vyuhas’ (ie. the battle arrays). Two great acharyas—Shukra and Brahaspati—had propounded many of these vyuhas. During the eighteen day war, Pandava and Kaurava commanders formed as many as thirty vyuhas, including Vajra, Krauncaruna, Ardhacandra, Syena, Makara, Garuda, Vyala, Sakata, Cakra, Suci, etc. While deciding to form a particular vyuha, they considered their own objective, and the deployment of the enemy’s forces.

    On the 13th day of the Mahabharata war, the Kaurava commander deployed his army in ‘Chakravyuha’ to trap and kill the Pandava commander ‘Abhimanyu.’ On the fourteenth day of war, the Kauravas combined Cakra-Sakata-Padma and Suci vyuhas to repel and beat the attack launched by Arjuna. There are references to vyuhas in the Ramayana and the Buddhist Jatakas (Buddhist literature) also.

    Vyuhas are described in far greater detail in the Arthashastra. In the sama-vyuha (even array) the five constituents—centre (ura) two flanks (kaksas) and two wings (paksas) were provided with an equal number of troops. In the visamavyuha (uneven army) the number of troops deployed at the centre, the flanks and the wings were not the same. In misravyuha (mixed array), the chariot, elephants, horses and foot soldiers were deployed together at the centre, and at the flanks and wings, while in suddhavyuha (unmixed array) only one of these arms was deployed.

    This four-fold classification of the vyuhas relates to the strategic deployment of various arms. But the most significant contribution of the Arthashastra relates to the tactical deployment of units, according to the code of Brahaspati. Kautilya has classified the tactical deployment of troops in four basic arrays, namely danda-vyuha (staff array), bhoga-vyuha (snake array), mandala-vyuha (circle array) and asamhata-vyuha (diffused array). Each of these types had many variations, as danda alone, could be formed in seventeen ways, bhoga in four ways, and both mandala and asamhata in three ways. Kautilya has also described some miscellaneous arrays.

    It is notable that a detailed description of battle arrays is also available in works such as the Manusmriti, Kamandaka Niti, Agni Purana and Sukraniti. Later works like the Sisupalavadha and Prithiviraja Raso also refer to the use of some of these vyuhas.

    Chakravyahu is something that we even use in terms of strategy in our day to day lives.

Posted by Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share it if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases especially cancer. Our posts are meant for our readers that includes both children and adults and it has a huge variety in terms of content. We also accept donations for our mission. Should you wish to donate for the cause. The bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our Publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(The book is about a young cancer patient. Now archived in 8 prestigious libraries of the US that includes Harvard College Library; Harvard University Library; Library of Congress; University of Washington, Seattle; University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; Yale University, New Haven; University of Chicago; University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill University Libraries. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in libraries and archives of Canada, Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai and Jaipuria Institute of Management, Noida, India. Shoolini University, Yogananda Knowledge Center, Himachal Pradesh. Azim Premzi University, Bangalore).  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Is a book on ‘singlehood’ about a Delhi girl now archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture, Delhi; Available for reading in Indian National Bibliography, March 2016, in the literature section, in Central Reference Library, Ministry of Culture, India, Belvedere, Kolkata-700022)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Is a fiction written around the great city of Nawabs—Lucknow. It describes Lucknow in great detail and also talks about its Hindu-Muslim amity. That happens to be the undying characteristics of Lucknow. The book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival of 2014. It is included for reading in Askews and Holts Library Services, Lancashire, U.K.)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. It was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

TYPICAL TALE OF AN INDIAN SALESMAN

(Is a story of an Indian salesman who is, humbly qualified. Yet he fights his ways through unceasing uncertainties to reach the top. A good read not only for salesmen. The book was launched on 10th February, 2018 in Gorakhpur Lit-Fest. Now available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

RHYTHM … in poems

(Published in January 2019. The book contains 50 poems. The poems describe our day to day life. The book is available in Amazon, Flipkart and Onlinegatha)

MIRAGE

(Published in February 2020. The book is a collection of eight short stories available in Amazon, Flipkart and Notion Press)

Short stories and Articles published in Bhavan’s Journal: Reality and Perception, 15.10.19; Sending the Wrong Message, 31.5.20; Eagle versus Scholars June, 15 & 20 2020; Indica, 15.8.20; The Story of King Chitraketu, August 31 2020; Breaking Through the Chakravyuh, September 30 2020. The Questioning Spouse, October 31, 2020; Happy Days, November 15, 2020; The Karma Cycle of Paddy and Wheat, December 15,2020; Power Vs Influence, January 31, 2021; Three Refugees, March 15, 2021;

(ALL THE ABOVE TITLES ARE AVAILABLE FOR SALE IN AMAZON, FLIPKART AND OTHER ONLINE STORES OR YOU COULD EVEN WRITE TO US FOR A COPY)

*****

CHANAKYA SAYS-PART 3

Copyright@shravancharitymission

CHANAKA SAYS—3

Paroshe karyahantaran pratakshya priyavadinam,

Varjayetadrishyam mitran vishwakumbham payomukham.

A friend, who overtly and flatteringly talks about sweet things. But covertly tries to harm you should be gotten rid of without any delay. He is like a pot that is filled with poison but is topped with cream to deceive.

*

Na vishwaset kumitre cha mitre chasapi na viswaset,

Kadachit kupitam mitram sarv guham prakashyet.

A friend who is not good shouldn’t be trusted, and a friend who is not proven bad, should also not be trusted with your secrets. Because he too might reveal them, when he is not on good terms with you.

*

Mansa chintitam  karya  vacha nev prakashyet,

Mantren rakshayed goonam karya chasapi niyojayet.

A plan that you’ve thought of in your mind, should not come to your tongue. Contemplate and rethink over it and keep it as a guarded secret. And put the idea or plan into action without voicing it.

*

Kashtam cha khalu mukhatava kashtam cha khalu yovanam,

Kashtatookasthtaram chaev pargenivasanam.

Stupidity is a woe and where the youthful days are woeful, but living on other’s mercy is an extreme woe.

*

Shaley shaley na manikayam mokitakam na gaje gaje,

Sadhavo na he sarvatra chandanam na vane vane.

Every hill does not contain gems. Every elephant does not have mani-pearl on its forehead. Every place is not a home of nobles and every forest does not grow sandalwood trees.

Translated by Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases. Should you wish to donate for the cause the bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(Archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. Book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

(CAN BE BOUGHT FROM ON LINE BOOK STORES OR WRITE TO US FOR COPIES)

*****

 

STORY: INSPECT BEFORE YOU HELP SOMEONE

Copyright@shravancharitymission

 

 

    Mahatama Kautilya was a renowned scholar and a proficient preacher of human relations. He had many shishyas (pupils) out of which, one even became the king of erstwhile India.

    He often used to preach, ‘that before you decide to help any anyone try and know about the person in great detail,’ and then only offer him help. As that alone will be beneficial for the person you’re trying to help. We should not offer help for useless causes, as by doing that, the noble gesture goes for a complete waste. His shishyas, however, could not understand this advice of his. Because in their childhood, they had heard, that charity and help like rainfall should be showered on everyone equally, otherwise it goes for a complete waste. Mahatma, on this belief of theirs, often used to laugh.

    One day a cheat from a nearby town came up to him and said, ‘Rishivar (Sage) I have heard, you are a great repository of knowledge in the field of wealth and intelligence. My humble request to you is to make me rich.’ Upon hearing this the shishyas got angry and literally wanted to throw him out of the ashram when the Maharishi smiled and intervened.

    ‘Wealth are of two kinds, one is money and the other is spiritual. Whatever you are worth, I will definitely give you that. But, before that you will have to undertake a small test. Out there from the sand go and pick up two stones, one black and one white and put them in your bag. I will then ask one of my shishya to put his hand in your bag and pull out a stone while you keep your eyes closed. In case the stone happens to be white I’ll give you spiritual knowledge and if the stone happens to be black then I’ll give you monetary knowledge that will help you in becoming rich.’ The cheat on the holy advice of the Mahatma closed his eyes  for a while when he heard the Mahatma saying.

    ‘My shishya has picked up the white stone that had fallen out from your bag. And that is why I feel you require spiritual knowledge, and I will provide you with that.’ 

The cheat immediately realised that even without telling anyone that he is a cheat he has been exposed, for which he is likely to be punished. He started repenting, and fell at  Maharishi’s feet and started pleading for pardon for having kept his identity as a secret and for all the misdeeds he had done in the past. He at once decided to cleanse his soul when he earnestly requested the Maharishi to make him his shishya.

    All the shishyas were dazed at this, is when the Mahatma said, ‘when this cheat came to ask for help. I found an opportunity to present you all and even him with a truth finding test, so that you all could see his misdeeds. But no one besides me and the moon tried to inspect this cheat in detail. Yet we still wanted to help him. So we stayed quiet, researched on him and later on based on the necessity and requirement we taught him the lesson of honesty, truthfulness, and seriousness. As this he required even before he became rich.

    This episode teaches us that before helping anyone you should try and know the person in minute details, so that you can help the person in the best possible manner and what he requires the most, he should get that only.

*

By Kamlesh Tripathi

*

https://kamleshsujata.wordpress.com

*

Share if you like it

*

Shravan Charity Mission is an NGO that works for poor children suffering from life threatening diseases. Should you wish to donate for the cause the bank details are given below:

NAME OF ACCOUNT: SHRAVAN CHARITY MISSION

Account no: 680510110004635 (BANK OF INDIA)

IFSC code: BKID0006805

*

Our publications

GLOOM BEHIND THE SMILE

(Archived in 7 prestigious libraries of the US, including, Harvard University and Library of Congress. It can also be accessed in MIT through Worldcat.org. Besides, it is also available for reading in Libraries and archives of Canada and Cancer Aid and Research Foundation Mumbai)  

ONE TO TANGO … RIA’S ODYSSEY

(Archived in Connemara Library, Chennai and Delhi Public Library, GOI, Ministry of Culture)

AADAB LUCKNOW … FOND MEMORIES

(Launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2014)

REFRACTIONS … FROM THE PRISM OF GOD

(Co-published by Cankids–Kidscan, a pan India NGO and Shravan Charity Mission, that works for Child cancer in India. The book is endorsed by Ms Preetha Reddy, MD Apollo Hospitals Group. Book was launched in Lucknow International Literary Festival 2016)

(CAN BE BOUGHT FROM ON LINE BOOK STORES OR WRITE TO US FOR COPIES)

*****